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Pyrroles, Urine (Pyrroluria, Kryptopyrrole, Mauve Factor)
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    Pyrroles, Urine (Pyrroluria, Kryptopyrrole, Mauve Factor)

    Product Code: LPyr

    Price: $79.00

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    Test Description

    Pyrroles, Urine (Pyrroluria, Kryptopyrrole, Mauve Factor)

    CALL TO ORDER: 800-447-7276 x1385

    A urine test for diagnosis and monitoring severe physiological or psychological stress.

    Pyrroles appear in the urine of patients undergoing severe physiological or psychological stress. The presence of urinary pyrroles (mauve factor) was first reported in patients with LSD psychosis. Later, high levels of pyrroles were found in the urine of schizophrenic patients. The chemical structure is a 2,4 dimethyl-3-ethylpyrrole. It is also called kryptopyrrole. Kryptos comes from the Greek word "hidden."

    In normal urine, the amount of pyrroles excreted is small, less than 20 ug/dL. It has been reported that kryptopyrrole will form a Shiff base with the aldehyde form of vitamin B6 in the blood. This combination will then bind with zinc. As large amounts of kryptopyrroles are excreted in the urine, it depletes the blood of B6 and zinc. Kryptopyrroles may be found in the urine of 11% of "normals;" 24% of "disturbed children;" 42% of psychiatric patients, and 52% of schizophrenic patients.

    Urine specimen collection and transport is very important for proper test results. Kits for shipping can be obtained from the laboratory. A brown, plastic tube containing 500 mg of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is filled with urine, no less than 1/2 full and no more than 3/4 full. The urine is mixed and frozen. Ship frozen with a cold pack by overnight delivery.

    Due to state licensing restrcitions we are unable to ship to New York. Thank you for your understanding. 

    Test Details

    Process time: 5 to 7 business days

    CPT code: 84999

    Special instructions: None

    Rejection causes: Ascorbic acid not used to maintain specimen stability

    Collection Instructions

    Patient prep: (1) If first time testing for pyrroles, discontinue taking any B6 or Zinc one week prior to collecting specimen. (2) If under treatment for pyrroluria, continue taking vitamin B6 and Zinc

    Specimen volume: Approximately 8 mL urine added to 500mg of ascorbic acid. Stable at least 1 month if kept frozen.

    Minimum volume: 2 mL

    Collection container: Clean container

    Transport container: Amber plastic transport tube or protected from light

    Transport instructions: Freeze


    Normal values: Normal reference range is less than 20 ug/dL. A "borderline" value is between 10 to 20 ug/dL.


    Reference one: Irving DG: Apparent non-indolic ehrlich-positive substances related to mental illness. J Neuropsychiat, 1961;2:292-305.

    Reference two: Hoffer A, Mahon M: The presence of unidentified substances in the urine of psychiatric patients. J Neuropsychiat, 1961;2:331-397.

    Reference three: Irvine DG, Bayne W, et al: Identification of kryptopyrrole in human urine and its relationship to psychosis. Nature, 1969;224:811-813.

    Reference four: Pfeiffer CC, Lliev V: Pyrroluria, urinary mauve factor, causes double deficiency of B6 and zinc in schizophrenics. Fed Proc, 1973;32:276.

    Reference five: Jackson JA, Riordan HD, Neathery S: Vitamins, blood lead and urine pyrroles in Down Syndrome patients. Amer Clin Lab, 1990:Jan- Feb:8-9.

    Reference six: Jackson JA, Riordan HD, Neathery S, Riordan N: Urinary pyrroles in health and disease. J Orthomol Med, 1997: 12;2:96-98.

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